10 COMMON DISEASES

CAUSES OF 10
COMMON SYMPTOMS

HIVES

 
Subject Contents

Hives

 
Definition
Hives are raised red welts of various size on the surface of the skin, often itchy , which come and go.
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Alternative Names
Urticaria
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Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Hives are very common, especially in people who have experienced other allergic reactions , including hay fever and angioedema . The welts occur on the surface of the skin, usually in batches. Release of histamine and other chemicals into the bloodstream, associated with the allergic response , causes the itching , localized swelling, and other symptoms. Many substances, called allergens, can trigger an allergic response resulting in hives. Common allergens include:
  • Medications
  • Foods (such as berries,
  • shellfish , fish, nuts, eggs, milk, and others)
  • Pollen
  • Animal dander (especially cats)
  • Insect bites
  • Hives may also develop after infections or illness (including
  • autoimmune diseases , leukemia , and others). There seems to be a hereditary tendency toward the development of hives. Some less common causes of hives include:
  • Cold urticaria
  • Lupus erythematosus
  • (
  • SLE '>SLE )
  • Echinococcus
  • infection (dog tapeworm)
  • Hereditary angioedema
  • Mononucleosis
  • Hepatitis
  • Mastocytosis
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    Symptoms
  • Itching
  • (
  • pruritus )
  • Swelling of the surface of the skin into red or skin colored welts (wheals) with clearly defined edges
  • Sudden onset
  • Rapid resolution
  • Welts blanch to touch
  • Welts enlarge, spread, or join together to form large flat raised areas
  • Welts change shape, disappear and reappear within minutes or hours
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    Signs and tests
    The diagnosis is primarily based on the appearance of the skin, and is confirmed by a history of exposure to an allergen . Occasionally, skin or blood tests may be performed.
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    Treatment
    Hives in the throat may obstruct the airway, so any swelling in the throat or difficulty breathing with hives are emergency symptoms. Call your local emergency medical services or visit the emergency room immediately. Treatment may not be needed if hives are mild, and they may disappear spontaneously. Antihistamines, adrenaline (epinephrine), corticosteroids (prednisone), sedatives, or tranquilizers may reduce the inflammation, itching , and swelling. Self care: Cool compresses or soaks to the area may reduce swelling and pain. Avoid irritation of the area, and don't wear tight clothing (which may trigger a new outbreak). Avoid known allergens to prevent recurrence of hives.
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    Support Groups

     
    Expectations (prognosis)
    Hives may be uncomfortable, but they generally are harmless and disappear on their own. In most cases, the exact cause of hives can not be identified.
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    Complications
  • Anaphylaxis
  • Life-threatening
  • airway obstruction , if swelling occurs in the throat
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    Calling your health care provider
    Call your health care provider if urticaria is severe and does not respond to treatment. Call your health care provider or go to the emergency room if there is difficulty breathing , severe wheezing , or if fainting occurs.
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    Prevention
  • Avoid exposure to substances that are a known
  • allergen for you.
  • Take only prescribed medications.
  • Avoid hot baths or showers after an episode of urticaria to prevent recurrence.
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    Hives treatment

     
    Definition

     
    Alternative Names
    Treatment - hives
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    Information
    Question: How do you suppress an outbreak of hives? Answer: Hives in the throat may obstruct the airway. Any swelling in the throat or difficulty breathing with Hives '>Hives should be considered emergency symptoms. Treatment may not be needed if Hives '>Hives are mild -- they will resolve spontaneously. Antihistamines may reduce inflammation, itching , and swelling. See urticaria , angioedema , and anaphylaxis .
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